A specific number of seeds are sown with the goal of achieving a specific number of seedlings (stand) in the crop that will generate a high yield per unit area. There is a clear link between the number of plants planted per unit area and overall yield in all crops. The viability and vigor of seeds sown to rejuvenate the crop have a direct impact on their performance. Although seed quality can affect a variety of elements of performance (e.g., total emergence, pace of emergence), the goal of this study was to look at the link between seed vigor and crop output. If plant population is low, poor seed vigor might cause yield reductions. Successful plant establishment in the field is critical for crop output and resource efficiency, and the vigour of seeds determines their capacity to germinate and establish seedlings quickly, evenly, and robustly under a variety of climatic conditions.
Seeds are the delivery vehicle for agricultural biotechnology and crop development since they contain the entire genetic complement of the crop. Seed phenotypic traits (e.g. seed coat, grain composition, and size), ageing, and the make-up of the maternal tissues have all been shown to affect the germination process, and hence seed priming soaking periods. Viability, seedlot purity, health, and mechanical damage are all easily measured parameters of seed quality, but the more enigmatic property of seed vigour is also important.
Seed vigour is a complicated feature that is determined at many phases of the mother plant’s and seed’s development, as well as by the surrounding environment..
Characteristics of Vigorous Seed
Successful plant establishment in the field is critical for crop output and resource efficiency, and the vigour of seeds determines their capacity to germinate and establish seedlings quickly, evenly, and robustly under a variety of climatic conditions.
The great majority of crops grown in the globe begin with the putting of a seed into the ground to establish a new plant. Seedling establishment is the first and most important step in crop production, since it determines whether the harvest will be successful or not. Seed quality is a critical characteristic for crop output, especially in light of the rising uncertainty caused by climate change.Seedling vigour is the most significant seed quality feature since the post-germination pre-emergence seedling growth phase is regarded the most sensitive stage, and hence the use of seed priming is limited.
Seed germination and seedling establishment are key stages in the plant life cycle, affecting plant dispersion and abundance in communities. Indeed, differences in seed germinability and seedling recruitment between habitats owing to environmental constraints, such as altitude, may be related with global spread and abundance of some plant species.
In soil with rising impedance, the seed must: (i) germinate quickly; (ii) have rapid initial downward growth; and (iii) have a high potential for upward shoot development.
In transplanted rice,older seedlings cultivated without fertilizer had poor shoot and root development. The most critical element impacting both shoot and root characteristics after transplantation (number of tillers, plant height, dry matter production) was discovered to be seedling age (root length density, root weight density).Younger seedlings fared better than older seedlings were transplanted into flooded or non-flooded soils, with higher nitrogen and manganese absorption.
Field establishment is influenced by management variables.
The coleoptile (for cereals) or hypocotyl (for broadleaf crops) takes longer to reach the surface, thus deeper seed planting slows emergence. If you plant too deep, some seedlings may never make it to the top and become established.
Plant vitality might also be harmed by deep sowing. This is due to the fact that the seedling expends a lot of its stored energy in order to develop through the soil. When the seedlings reach the surface, they will be less aggressive.The planting depth should be roughly five times the size of the seed, as a rule of thumb.
Size of the seed
Seed size can have a significant impact on crop establishment. Greater seed size results in more robust seedlings and better crop establishment.The quantity of nutritional reserves that will be provided for the first seedling growth is closely connected to the weight and size of the seeds . When compared to tiny seeds, large seeds yield more robust seedlings . Seedling establishment is more likely in places with decreased resource availability when there are more stored reserves.
Spacing between rows
The best row spacing is a balance of crop production, stubble handling ease, travel speed optimization, weed competition and soil throw management, and pre-emergent pesticide effectiveness.
Due to competition for water or light from crowding of plants inside the rows, there is a general trend toward worse establishment as row spacing rises
Crop establishment leads to the yield of crops.Yield is determined by individual plant features (e.g., photosynthetic efficiency), plant community characteristics (e.g., LAI, plant density, leaf angle), environmental factors, and the integration of growth processes across time in a changing environment. Yield is defined as weight per unit area for many crops (e.g., grain crops), and the plant community is the relevant unit for consideration.
For a better crop establishment and satisafactory yield, seed and seedling should be vigorous.Besides this,other genetic,environmental,physiological and physical factors are also responsile for the better crop establishment.Seed vigour is a critical issue for agriculture and the seed business, yet it is still poorly understood and understudied in academic study. With an ever-increasing human population and fast climate change, seed vigour is becoming increasingly important.