Tuesday, 31st January 2023 || १७ माघ २०७९, मंगलबार


२०७८ भदौ ४ , शुक्रबार ०९:०८ मा प्रकाशित | ८७१ पटक पढिएको


A seed is a developed, fertilized ovule from a flowering plant that contains an embryo or  rudimentary plant. Seed vigour is ‘the sum total of those properties of the seed that determine the  potential level of activity and performance of the seed during germination and seedling  emergence’ (Perry, 1978, 1980).It is a concept associated with aspects of seed performance such  as rate and uniformity of seed germination and seedling growth, emergence ability of seeds  under unfavorable environmental conditions, and performance after storage, particularly the  ability to germinate, rather than a single measurable property. AS a result, vigour can be defined  as the potential performance of viable seeds in agricultural practice, which is governed by the  complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors (Whittington, 1973; Hodgkin and  Hegarty, 1978). The causes for this diversity in performance, however, are complicated and little  understood. 

Important seed vigour traits for predictable crop establishment  

A seed’s vigour determines how well it performs, its ability to yield strong seedlings that become  robust and uniform plants. On the other hand, seeds seen to be low in vigour will produce weaker  seedlings that will be more susceptible to attack, contamination, and other environmental issues. 

Size matters: Seeds should be uniform in size; this is an indication that they’re all of the  same quality and purity. A mixture of sizes could be a sign that the seeds haven’t been  graded properly, meaning it’s more likely there will be contaminants and weaker  specimens among them. 

Paddock Competition: The more evenly the seed distribution in the paddock the less  chance that weeds will compete for vital nutrients and moisture 

Seed purity: As well as being uniform in size, seeds should also contain only a single  variety. Any mixture among the seeds can introduce cross fertilisation potential or enable  weaker seeds to pass on contaminants to the stronger seeds, ruining your crop. 

Seed cleanliness: Seeds are cleaned to remove the chaff and any inert material that can  damage their performance. Dirt, twigs, straw, stones and weeds carry contaminants that  can limit the seed’s productivity and possibly render it useless. 

Germination power: Seeds that are of uniform size, shape, colour, purity and cleanliness  will produce stronger seedlings that become healthy plants. Seedlings from robust seed  stock will germinate faster giving early, uniform stands that shield and protect each other.  

Vigor testing not only determines the percentage of viable seed in a sample, but it also represents the seeds potential to generate normal seedlings under optimum or adverse growing condition  similar to those which may occur in the field. 

A germination test, which gives the growing seedlings with optimal temperature, moisture, and li ght conditions, can classify seeds as viable. They may, however, be unable to continue growing and complete their life cycle under a variety of outdoor circumstances. Vigor testing is an  important procedure in seed production operations because seeds lose vigor before they lose their  capacity to germinate. For carryover seeds, vigor testing is very crucial, especially if the seeds  were stored under unknown or unfavorable conditions. Seed vigor testing is also used to  determine a seed lot’s storage potential and to rate distinct seed lots with varied attributes.

Method of measuring seed vigor 

Cold test, accelerated aging test, electric conductivity test, seedling vigor classification, and  seedling growth rate are among the tests that are used to measure seed vigor. 

Seedlings have four significant morphological sites for evaluating vigor: 

• Root system. 

• Hypocotyl (the embryonic axis between cotyledons and root). 

• Cotyledons (storage tissue of reserve food for seedling development). 

• Epicotyl (the embryonic axis above the cotyledons). 

In this test, seedlings are classified as ‘strong’ if the above four areas are well developed and  free from defects, which is indication of satisfactory performance over a wide range of field  conditions. On the other hand, normal seedlings with some deficiencies such as missing part of  the root, one cotyledon missing, hypocotyl with breaks, lesions, necrosis, twisting, or curling are  classified as ‘weak’. 


Seed vigour is a complicated feature that is determined at many phases of the mother plants and seed’s  development, as well as by the surrounding environment. Furthermore, its actions are dependent on  the current environment and act from seed imbibition until seedling emergence. Seed vigour is a critical  issue for agriculture and the seed industry. It demands well-established plants that germinate fast and  uniformly, producing large amounts of nutritious product. The stronger the seed, the more  likely you are to succeed, yet it is still poorly understood and understudied in academic study. With an  ever-increasing population and rapid climate change, seed vigour is becoming increasingly important.  Thus, seed vigour is important to unfold the potential yield performance of the crop.


Seed vigour

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