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Monday, 3rd October 2022 || १७ असोज २०७९, सोमबार

Introduction to seed and seed quality

krishireview
२०७८ भदौ १६ , बुधबार ०९:०९ मा प्रकाशित | ३६१ पटक पढिएको

Seed Quality

The seeds are mature ovules composed of embryonic plants and food reserves all surrounded by a protective layer. Seeds are the basic input of agriculture.

Seeds are embryos ,living organisms embedded in supporting food storage tissues.Seed is a fertilized mature ovule that possesses an embryonic plant,stored food material (endosperm) and protective coat(testa),which is viable and has capacity to germinate.

A seed is said to be of quality if it is produced scientifically and clearly superior in terms of physical,genetic,physiological and pathological parameters.

Quality of seed is the seed with the required genetic and physical purity accompanied by a state of physical stability and health.Quality seeds also defined as a purebred variety with a high germination rate,rapid germination and vigorous growth. variety,the absence.Seed quality is having seeds of requisite genetic and physical purity accompanied by physiological sound and state of health.Seed lot must meet certification standard to be of good quality.Seed quality describes the potential performance of a seed trueness to of inert material,seeds of other crops or weed seed,germination percentage,vigor,appearance and freedom from disease are the important aspect of seed quality.

Characteristics of quality seed/major seed quality characteristics

The major seed quality characteristics are summarised as below:

1.physical quality: the cleanliness of the grain in relation to other particles,debris,inert matter,diseased seeds and seeds damaged by insects.Seeds of physical quality must be of uniform size,weight,color and free from stones,debris,dirt,leaves,branches,stems,flowers and fruits and free from other vegetable seeds and inert materials.It should also free from diseased,moldy,discolored,damaged and hollow seeds.The should be easily identified as a species belonging to the particular subspecies of of a species.This Quality characteristics can be achieved by proper cleaning and grading of seeds(treatment) after collection and before sowing.

2.Genetic purity:this is true to type nature of the seed.that is,the seedling/

Tree/tree of the seed must be like its mother in all respects.This quality characteristics are important to achieve the desired goal of increasing crop yield.

3.Physiological  quality:This is the actual expression of the seedin the next generation/breeding.This quality include germination and seed vigor.The vitality of a seed is called viability.The vigor of seeds determine the level of the yield of the seed.not all seeds can be germinated,but all seeds that can be sprouted will be viable.Likewise,all seeds with vigor will germinate ,but not all germinating seeds need vigor.

4.Seed Health:seed health is nothing more than the absence of insect infestation and fungal infection,in or on the seed.Seeds should not be infected with fungi or pests because it will reduce the physiological quality of seeds as well as the physical quality of seeds during long term storage.

Hence the quality seed should have

  • High genetic purity
  • High pure seed percentage(physical purity)
  • High germination percentage
  • High vigor
  • Free from pest and disease
  • Good shape,size,colour
  • High longevity
  • Optimum moisture content for storage
  • Higher genetically purity
    • Breeder/Nucleus-100%
    • Foundation Seed-99.5%
    • Certified seed-99%
  • Higher physical purity for certification
  • Maize,Bhendi-99%
  • All crops(most)-98%
  • Carrot-95%
  • Sesame,soybean and jute-97%
  • Groundnut-96%

Importance of quality seed

  • Ensures genetic and physical purity of crops
  • Provide desired plant population
  • Ability to withstand adverse condition
  • Seedling produced will be more vigorous,grow faster and be able to resist pest and disease
  • Ensure uniform growth and maturation
  • Root development will be more efficient,which will facilitate efficient absorption of nutrient and lead to higher yield
  • It will respond well to the addition of fertilizer and other inputs
  • Good quality seed of improved variety ensure at least 10-12%
  • Good quality seeds have high yields per unit area because the genetic potential 
  • Less infestation of land with weed/other crop seeds 
  • Crop raised with quality seed are aesthetically pleasing 
  • The right seeds extend the life of many varieties.
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Seed quality

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